The first unifying dynasty in Czech lands was the Přemyslid dynasty. Afterwards it became part of the Holy Roman Empire and especially under the reign of Charles IV, in 14th century, it is considered as the golden period of Czech history. After a short time, when the polish Jagellones held the czech crown, Czech lands came under the control of the Habsburg dynasty till the First World War.
During the war an opposition to the monarchy was founded and at its head there was Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. On the 28th October 1918 Czechoslovakia (Slovakia which was under Hungarian control until then joined the new state) was founded and Masaryk became the first president.
During the Second World War Hitler wanted to annex the territory of the Sudetenland and with the Munich Agreement of 1938 he succeeded to do so: without the presence of Czechoslovakia, Germany, France, Britain and Italy permitted the annection. Later on, the remaining territories and Slovakia became satellites of Germany. On 5th of May 1945 Prague´s insurrection against the German occupation began and President Beneš came back to govern.
However at the election of 1946 the Communist party won. In 1948 the Communist entirely overtook the power and since then Czechoslovakia followed the Sowjet model. In 1968 the Prague Spring, so called political liberalisation was introduced by Dubček, who wanted to create a human communism. But this liberal plan seemed dangerous for the USSR and so they and other states of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country on the 21st of August 1968. Czechoslovakia stayed occupied and entered the period of „normalisation“: with Husák, who replaced Dubček, the ancient soviet values were reinstaured.
Finally, in 1989, the Czech Resistance became successful: with the Velvet Revolution they stood up against the Communist leaders and free elections were organised. The resistance-leader Václav Havel became the new President.
The Prime minister of Slovakia, Vladimír Mečiar and the Czech Prime minister Václav Klaus decided the separation of Czechoslovakia, who is divided into the states Czech Republic and Slovakia, since 1st January 1993.
The Czech Republic joined the NATO in 1999, the European Union on the 1st May 2004 and since the 21.12.2007 there are no passport controls at its EU boarders due to the Schengen Agreement.
The Czech Republic is a Parliamentry Republic with two Chambers. The two chambers elect every 5 years the Republic’s President. The current President is Miloš Zeman, who was elected in the first direct elections in January 2013, and the Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka (ČSSD - Czech Social Democrats). The Czech Republic is divided into three regions (Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia), but is no longer federal state as Czechoslovakia was. Further it is divided into 14 districts (Kraj).